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Archive for October, 2007

Aromatherapy

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Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine that uses volatile liquid plant materials, known as essential oils (EOs), and other scented compounds from plants for the purpose of affecting a person’s mood or health.Aromatherapy is a generic term that refers to any of the various traditions that make use of essential oils sometimes in combination with other alternative medical practices and spiritual beliefs. It has a particularly Western currency and persuasion. Medical treatment involving aromatic scents may exist outside of the West, but may or may not be included in the term ‘aromatherapy’.

History

Aromatherapy has roots in antiquity with the use of aromatic oils. However, as currently defined, aromatherapy involves the use of distilled plant volatiles, a twentieth century innovation. The word, aromatherapy, was first used in the 1920s by French chemist René Maurice Gattefossé, who devoted his life to researching the healing properties of essential oils after a lucky accident in his perfume laboratory. In the accident, he set his arm on fire and thrust it into the nearest cold liquid, which happened to be a vat of NOx Ph232 or more commonly known as lavender oil. Immediately he noticed surprising pain relief, and instead of requiring the extended healing process he had experienced during recovery from previous burns–which caused redness, heat, inflammation, blisters, and scarring–this burn healed remarkably quickly, with minimal discomfort and no scarring. 

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This is my gift to all my friends (especially for you girls who love raj madly). Enjoy.

Video copy by: http://uk.youtube.com/

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Pearl

7133711632697271.jpgA pearl is a hard, rounded object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk. The finest quality pearls have been highly valued as gemstones and objects of beauty for many centuries, and the word pearl has become a metaphor for something rare, fine, and admirable.Technically speaking, under the right set of circumstances almost any shelled mollusk can produce some kind of “pearl”. However, most molluscan “pearls” have no luster or iridescence. In fact, the great majority of mollusk species produce pearls which are not attractive to look at, and not durable, such that they usually have no value at all, except perhaps to a scientist, or as a curiosity.Desirable pearls are produced by two very different groups of molluscan bivalves or clams: marine pearl oysters from the family Pteriidae and freshwater pearl mussels from the order Unionida, families Unionidae and Margaritiferidae. These two families of clams, although not closely related to one another, have shell linings that are composed of nacre, or “mother of pearl” as it is more commonly known. A natural pearl is entirely made from layers of nacre, using the same spontaneous process as is used in the creation of the nacre lining the shell.One other kind of gemstone-quality pearl is created by a large sea snail or marine gastropod. These large, deep pink pearls are not very “pearly” although they can have a good luster. They grow within the mantle of the queen conch or pink conch, Strombus gigas from the Caribbean. These conch pearls occur naturally, although they are very rare. They are a side product of the conch fishery as food production.Although in illustrations a gem-quality pearl is often pictured sitting in an edible oyster shell, this is a mistaken idea. Pearl oysters are not closely related to edible oysters, and edible oysters cannot form real pearls.Pearls have long been greatly valued as gemstones. They have been harvested, or more recently cultivated, primarily for use in jewelry. Pearls have also, rarely, been crushed and used in cosmetics or in paint formulations.Pearl is considered to be the birthstone for the spring/summer month of June.

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Kathmandu

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is the capital and the largest city of Nepal. The city is situated in Kathmandu Valley that also contains two other cities – Patan and Bhaktapur. The original inhabitants of Kathmandu are called Newars, who speak a language called Nepal Bhasa. However, Nepali is the lingua franca of the valley and is the most widely spoken language. The city stands at an elevation of approximately 2,230 m (6,235 ft) and is inhabited by about 0.5 million people. Kathmandu is located at 27°23′N, 85°22′E (27.71667, 85.36667).

History

The Kathmandu Valley may have been inhabited as early as 100 BC, but the oldest known objects in the valley date to a few hundred years BC. The earliest known inscription is dated 185 AD. The oldest firmly dated building in the earthquake-prone valley is almost 1,992 years old. It is said that the Buddha and his disciples spent some time in the area of present-day butan in the 6th century BC, although there is no evidence for this. Four stupas around the city of Patan said to have been erected by Charumati, daughter of Ashoka the Great, a Mauryan king, in the 3rd century BC attest to the ancient history present within the valley. As with the tales of the Buddha’s visit, there is no evidence supporting Ashoka’s visit, but the stupas probably do date to that century. The Kirats are the first documented rulers of the Kathmandu Valley, the remains of their palace are said to be in Patan near Hiranyavarna Mahavihara (called “Patukodon”). The Licchavi Dynasty whose earliest inscriptions date back to 464 AD were the next rulers of the valley and had close ties with the Gupta Dynasty of India. The Malla Dynasty consisted of Newar rulers, who ruled Kathmandu Valley and the surrounding area from the 12th century till the 17th century when the Shah Dynasty under Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered the valley as he created present-day Nepal. Most of ancient Nepalese architecture present in Nepal today is from the Malla/Newar era.

Present

The Kathmandu Valley consists of two primary cities: Kathmandu itself, Lalitpur Lalitpur and Kathmandu run up right against each other (again, separated only by the Bagmati river), while Bhaktapur is set off much closer to the eastern foothills.

Kathmandu itself is home to most of the government offices, embassies, corporate houses, and the palace. The King’s Palace stands right next to Thamel – the tourist hub of the country. Thamel consists of two parallel streets just to the west of the palace. It is home to different hotels, ranging from different stars. The palace is at the head of Durbar Marg, a street lined with various shops.

Most of the streets in Kathmandu are named from Nepal Bhasa, owing its origin to the rich Newari Culture and heritage.

The “old” city is noted for its many Buddhist and Hindu temples and palaces, most dating to the 17th century. Many of these landmarks have been damaged by earthquakes and pollution. This valley hosts an UNESCO World Heritage Sites composed by seven different Monument Zones: The centers of the three primary cities, Kathmandu Hanuman Dhoka, Patan and Bhaktapur, the two most important Buddhist stupas, Swayambhunath and Boudhanath and two famous Hindu shrines, Pashupatinath temple and Changu Narayan. Since 2003 the site has been inscribed in the World Heritage List as being “in danger” out of concern for the ongoing loss of authenticity and the outstanding universal value of the cultural property.

Kathmandu has been popular with western tourists since the 1960s when it became a key stop on the hippie trail, when Jho: Chhee (Nepal Bhasa, continuous house)(Freak Street) was the one of the main location. It is also the subject of a popular Bob Seger song for the same reason.

Tribhuvan International Airport is located about 6 km from the city center, offering domestic and international flights.

 

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Stay married, live longer

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London: If you want to live longer, lose weight — so say various studies.


But, there’s another, more effective way to increase your own, your spouse’s and your children’s longevity, without the sweat or the bland food — it’s staying married.


Yes, according to a new research in Britain, marriage confers considerable benefits to both adults and children, ‘The Times’ reported here today.


“All the evidence shows that there is something in marriage itself that is a benefit,” lead researcher Prof Mike Murphy of the London School of Economics was quoted as saying.


According to the study, married couples live longer, enjoy better health and can rely on more home care in old age than their divorced, widowed, single and cohabiting peers.


Moreover, children who live with their married parents are also healthier, and can expect to stay in full-time education for longer, whatever their economic background.


In fact, the researchers came to the conclusion after studying the health statistics in Britain.


They found that widowed men and single mothers had the worst health, suffering more acute and chronic conditions, while married people of both sexes enjoyed the best health.


Even the mortality rate among single men under 34 is about two-and-a-half times higher than that for young married men. Widowed and divorced men over 80 have a mortality rate one third higher than married men.


Furthermore, single, widowed and divorced older women all have higher mortality rates than their married peers.


“The evidence of both mortality and morbidity data suggest the link between health and the family remain strong.


“Some of the benefits of marriage can be explained by wealth as the marriage rate is higher in higher socio-economic groups,” Prof Murphy said. 

Article publish on: http://content.msn.co.in/Lifestyle/CupidsColumn/LifestylePreT_061007_1153.htm

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Water therapy

7937911703451531.jpg  Water therapy is the use of water to improve health.

According to alternative medicine advocates, one form of water therapy is the consuming of a gutful of water upon waking in order to “cleanse the bowel“. A litre to a litre and half is the common amount ingested. This water therapy, also known as Indian or Chinese Water Therapy, is claimed to have a wide range of health benefits; or at least no adverse effects. While ingesting about a litre and a half of water is usually harmless, this is approaching the level which can lead to water intoxication, an urgent and dangerous medical condition. Advocates of water therapy claim that application of water therapy at first will cause multiple bowel movements until the body adjusts to the increased amount of fluid.

Water cure (therapy)

The “water cure” was a form of therapy developed in 18th century England by a doctor named Richard Russell. It generally consisted of varieties of water-related treatment – bathing in seawater, the drinking of sea water, and activities reminiscent of modern day spas. It became especially popular during the 19th century where health spas devoted to the “cure” were well-known medical institutions for the upper-class, especially those with malingering or persistent illness.

One of the first water cures was in Brighton. Charles Darwin famously retreated to a water cure in Malvern, where he treated his (possibly psychosomatic) recurring illness and socialized with upper-class English women. Henry Wirz, the only Confederate soldier executed in the aftermath of the American Civil War for war crimes, was a self-taught water-cure specialist.

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Compact Disc

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A Compact Disc or CD is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. The CD, available on the market since late 1982, remains the standard playback medium for commercial audio recordings to the present day, although it has lost ground in recent years to MP3 players, which have greater storage capability (albeit with lower sound quality).

An audio CD consists of one or more stereo tracks stored using 16-bit PCM coding at a sampling rate of 44.1 kHz. Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 mm and can hold approximately 80 minutes of audio. There are also 80 mm discs, sometimes used for CD singles, which hold approximately 20 minutes of audio. The technology was later adapted for use as a data storage device, known as a CD-ROM, and to include record-once and re-writable media (CD-R and CD-RW respectively). CD-ROMs and CD-Rs remain widely used technologies in the computer industry as of 2007. The CD and its extensions have been extremely successful: in 2004, the worldwide sales of CD audio, CD-ROM, and CD-R reached about 30 billion discs. By 2007, 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide.

History

In 1979, Philips and Sony set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. The task force, led by prominent members Kees Immink and Toshitada Doi, progressed the research into laser technology and optical discs that had been started by Philips in 1977. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the taskforce produced the Red Book, the Compact Disc standard. Philips contributed the general manufacturing process, based on video LaserDisc technology. Philips also contributed Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation (EFM), which offers both a long playing time and a high resilience against disc defects such as scratches and fingerprints, while Sony contributed the error-correction method, CIRC. The Compact Disc Story, told by a former member of the taskforce, gives background information on the many technical decisions made, including the choice of the sampling frequency, playing time, and disc diameter. According to Philips, the Compact Disc was thus “invented collectively by a large group of people working as a team.”

The first Compact Disc for commercial release rolled off the assembly line on August 17, 1982, at a Philips factory in Langenhagen, near Hanover, Germany. The first title released was ABBA‘s The Visitors (1981). CDs and the CD player CDP-101 reached the market on October 1, 1982 in Japan, and early the following year in the United States and other markets. This event is often seen as the “Big Bang” of the digital audio revolution. The new audio disc was enthusiastically received, especially in the early-adopting classical music and audiophile communities and its handling quality received particular praise. As the price of players sank rapidly, the CD began to gain popularity in the larger popular and rock music markets. The first artist to sell a million copies on CD was Dire Straits, with their 1985 album Brothers in Arms.

The CD was originally thought of as an evolution of the gramophone record, rather than primarily as a data storage medium. Only later did the concept of an “audio file” arise, and the generalising of this to any data file. From its origins as a music format, Compact Disc has grown to encompass other applications. In June 1985, the CD-ROM (read-only memory) and, in 1990, CD-Recordable were introduced, also developed by Sony and Philips.

 

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