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Archive for August, 2007

22911579275713.jpg  Eating just one salad a day provides even greater health benefits than previously thought, according to a study that examined salad consumption by more than 17,000 adults. The study, conducted by the UCLA School of Public Health and Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, supported by The Association for Dressings & Sauces, revealed that those who eat salads and raw vegetables with salad dressing have considerably higher levels of vitamins C, E, B6, and folic acid-key nutrients in promoting a healthy immune system and reducing the risk of obesity, heart disease and other chronic illnesses.

“Eating a salad a day is a convenient way to easily improve your nutritional status,” said Dr. Lenore Arab, professor of epidemiology at UCLA School of Public Health and lead researcher of the study, titled “Salad and Raw Vegetable Consumption and Nutritional Status in the Adult US Population”. “Just one salad daily helps to satisfy the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which recommends eating two and a half cups of vegetables each day for a 2000-calorie diet.”

According to the study, less than 50% of the US population meets the daily recommendation for vegetables necessary for healthy living. Americans do not get enough of the water-soluble vitamins of which salads are a rich source. The raw vegetables in salads also offer the added benefits of fiber for better digestion and antioxidants for boosting immunity.

Interestingly, clinical trials have shown that adding salad dressing to a salad not only adds a delicious flavor, but also increases the absorption of certain nutrients being consumed. “It’s not just the leafy greens and vegetables that are doing a body good,” said Arab. “Some fat can also enhance the absorption of nutrients such as lycopene and alpha- and beta-carotene.”

The findings of this study are consistent with the government’s new push for more fruit and vegetable consumption. Though it’s already known that salad was a healthy meal option, the bottom line, according to the UCLA study – eating one salad a day is a simple way to live a healthier lifestyle. The study has been published in the September issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association. For more information, visit http://www.saladaday.org.

Article publish on: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/53654.php

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Breast cancer

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Breast cancer is a cancer of the glandular breast tissue.

Worldwide, breast cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death (after lung cancer, stomach cancer, liver cancer, and colon cancer). In 2005, breast cancer caused 502,000 deaths (7% of cancer deaths; almost 1% of all deaths) worldwide. Among women worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer and the most common cause of cancer death.

In the United States, breast cancer is the third most common cause of cancer death (after lung cancer and colon cancer). In 2007, breast cancer is expected to cause 40,910 deaths (7% of cancer deaths; almost 2% of all deaths) in the U.S.[  Among women in the U.S., breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death (after lung cancer). Women in the U.S. have a 1 in 8 lifetime chance of developing invasive breast cancer and a 1 in 33 chance of breast cancer causing their death.

The number of cases has significantly increased since the 1970s, a phenomenon partly blamed on modern lifestyles in the Western world.

Excised breast tissue showing a stellate, pale area of cancer measuring 2cm across. The tumor could be felt as a hard, mobile lump before the surgical excision.

Because the breast is composed of identical tissues in males and females, breast cancer also occurs in males, though it is less common.

History

Breast cancer may be one of the oldest known forms of cancer tumors in humans. The oldest description of cancer (although the term cancer was not used) was discovered in Egypt and dates back to approximately 1600 BC. The Edwin Smith Papyrus describes 8 cases of tumors or ulcers of the breast that were treated by cauterization, with a tool called “the fire drill.” The writing says about the disease, “There is no treatment.” For centuries, physicians described similar cases in their practises, with the same sad conclusion. It wasn’t until doctors achieved greater understanding of the circulatory system in the 17th century that they could establish a link between breast cancer and the lymph nodes in the armpit. The French surgeon Jean Louis Petit (1674-1750) and later the Scottish surgeon Benjamin Bell (1749-1806) were the first to remove the lymph nodes, breast tissue, and underlying chest muscle. Their successful work was carried on by William Stewart Halsted who started performing mastectomies in 1882. He became known for his Halsted radical mastectomy, a surgical procedure that remained popular up to the 1970s.

Symptoms

Early breast cancer can in some cases present as breast pain (mastodynia) or a painful lump. Since the advent of breast mammography, breast cancer is most frequently discovered as an asymptomatic nodule on a mammogram, before any symptoms are present. A lump under the arm or above the collarbone that does not go away may be present. When breast cancer associates with skin inflammation, this is known as inflammatory breast cancer. In inflammatory breast cancer, the breast tumor itself is causing an inflammatory reaction of the skin, and this can cause pain, swelling, warmth, and redness throughout the breast.

Changes in the appearance or shape of the breast can raise suspicions of breast cancer.

Another reported symptom complex of breast cancer is Paget’s disease of the breast. This syndrome presents as eczematoid skin changes at the nipple, and is a late manifestation of an underlying breast cancer.

Most breast symptoms do not turn out to represent underlying breast cancer. Benign breast diseases such as fibrocystic mastopathy, mastitis, functional mastodynia, and fibroadenoma of the breast are more common causes of breast symptoms. The appearance of a new breast symptom should be taken seriously by both patients and their doctors, because of the possibility of an underlying breast cancer at almost any age.

Occasionally, breast cancer presents as metastatic disease, that is, cancer that has spread beyond the original organ. Metastatic breast cancer will cause symptoms that depend on the location of metastasis. More common sites of metastasis include bone, liver, lung, and brain. Unexplained weight loss can occasionally herald an occult breast cancer, as can symptoms of fevers or chills. Bone or joint pains can sometimes be manifestations of metastatic breast cancer, as can jaundice or neurological symptoms. Pleural effusions are not uncommon with metastatic breast cancer. Obviously, these symptoms are “non-specific,” meaning they can also be manifestations of many other illnesses.

Age

The risk of getting breast cancer increases with age. A woman who lives to age 90 has a lifetime risk of about 14.3%, or one in seven. The probability of breast cancer rises with age, but breast cancer tends to be more aggressive when it occurs in younger people. One type of breast cancer that is especially aggressive and that occurs disproportionately in younger people is inflammatory breast cancer. It is initially staged as Stage IIIb or Stage IV. It also is unique because it often does not present with a lump, so it is often undetected by mammography or ultrasound. It presents with the signs and symptoms of a breast infection like mastitis, and the treatment is usually a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.

Breast self-exam

Breast self-exam was widely discussed in the 1990s as a useful modality for detecting breast cancer at an earlier stage of presentation. A large clinical trial in China reduced enthusiasm for breast self-exam. In the trial, reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute first in 1997 and updated in 2002, 132,979 female Chinese factory workers were taught by nurses at their factories to perform monthly breast self-exam, while 133,085 other workers were not taught self-exam. The women taught self-exam tended to detect more breast nodules, but their breast cancer mortality rate was no different from that of women in the control group. In other words, women taught breast self-exam were mostly likely to detect benign breast disease, but were just as likely to die of breast cancer. An editorial in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute reported in 2002, “Routinely Teaching Breast Self-Examination is Dead. What Does This Mean?”

Treatment

The mainstay of breast cancer treatment is surgery when the tumor is localized, with possible adjuvant hormonal therapy (with tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor), chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy. At present, the treatment recommendations after surgery (adjuvant therapy) follow a pattern. This pattern is subject to change, as every two years, a worldwide conference takes place in St. Gallen, Switzerland, to discuss the actual results of worldwide multi-center studies. Depending on clinical criteria (age, type of cancer, size, metastasis) patients are roughly divided to high risk and low risk cases, with each risk category following different rules for therapy. Treatment possibilities include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and immune therapy.

In planning treatment, doctors can also use PCR tests like Oncotype DX or microarray tests like MammaPrint that predict breast cancer recurrence risk based on gene expression. In February 2007, the MammaPrint test became the first breast cancer predictor to win formal approval from the Food and Drug Administration. This is a new gene test to help predict whether women with early-stage breast cancer will relapse in 5 or 10 years, this could help influence how aggressively the initial tumor is treated.

Breast cancer awareness

In the month of October, breast cancer is recognized by survivors, family and friends of survivors and/or victims of the disease. A pink ribbon is worn to recognize the struggle that sufferers face when battling the cancer.

Pink for October is an initiative started by Matthew Oliphant, which asks that any sites willing to help make people aware of breast cancer, change their template or layout to include the color pink, so that when visitors view the site, they see that the majority of the site is pink. Then after reading a short amount of information about breast cancer, or being redirected to another site, they are aware of the disease itself.

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WWW

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A world library-from gopher to the WWW
As the Internet grew through the 1980s and early 1990s, many people realized the increasing need to be able to find and organize files and information. Projects such as Gopher, WAIS, and the FTP Archive list attempted to create ways to organize distributed data. Unfortunately, these projects fell short in being able to accommodate all the existing data types and in being able to grow without bottlenecks.
One of the most promising user interface paradigms during this period was hypertext. The technology had been inspired by Vannevar Bush‘s “Memex” and developed through Ted Nelson‘s research on Project Xanadu and Douglas Engelbart‘s research on NLS. Many small self-contained hypertext systems had been created before, such as Apple Computer’s HyperCard.
In 1991, Tim Berners-Lee was the first to develop a network-based implementation of the hypertext concept. This was after Berners-Lee had repeatedly proposed his idea to the hypertext and Internet communities at various conferences to no avail-no one would implement it for him. Working at CERN, Berners-Lee wanted a way to share information about their research. By releasing his implementation to public use, he ensured the technology would become widespread. Subsequently, Gopher became the first commonly-used hypertext interface to the Internet. While Gopher menu items were examples of hypertext, they were not commonly perceived in that way. One early popular web browser, modeled after HyperCard, was ViolaWWW.
Scholars generally agree, however, that the turning point for the World Wide Web began with the introduction of the Mosaic (web browser) in 1993, a graphical browser developed by a team at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (NCSA-UIUC), led by Marc Andreessen. Funding for Mosaic came from the High-Performance Computing and Communications Initiative, a funding program initiated by then-Senator Al Gore‘s High Performance Computing and Communication Act of 1991 also known as the Gore Bill.. Indeed, Mosaic’s graphical interface soon became more popular than Gopher, which at the time was primarily text-based, and the WWW became the preferred interface for accessing the Internet.
Mosaic was eventually superseded in 1994 by Andreessen’s Netscape Navigator, which replaced Mosaic as the world’s most popular browser. Competition from Internet Explorer and a variety of other browsers has almost completely displaced it. Another important event held on January 11, 1994, was The Superhighway Summit at UCLA‘s Royce Hall. This was the “first public conference bringing together all of the major industry, government and academic leaders in the field [and] also began the national dialogue about the Information Superhighway and its implications.”

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Back pain

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Back pain (also known “dorsalgia”) is pain felt in the back that may originate from the muscles, nerves, bones, joints or other structures in the spine.The pain may be have a sudden onset or it can be a chronic pain, it can be felt constantly or intermittently, stay in one place or refer or radiate to other areas. It may be a dull ache, or a sharp or piercing or burning sensation. The pain may be felt in the neck (and might radiate into the arm and hand), in the upper back, or in the low back, (and might radiate into the leg or foot), and may include symptoms other than pain, such as weakness, numbness or tingling.Back pain is one of humanity’s most frequent complaints. In the U.S., acute low back pain (also called lumbago) is the fifth most common reason for all physician visits. About nine out of ten adults experience back pain at some point in their life, and five out of ten working adults have back pain every year. The spine is a complex interconnecting network of nerves, joints, muscles, tendons and ligaments, and all are capable of producing pain. Large nerves that originate in the spine and go to the legs and arms can make pain radiate to the extremities.Back pain can be a sign of a serious medical problem, although this is not most frequently the underlying cause:

  • Typical warning signs of a potentially life-threatening problem are bowel and/or bladder incontinence or progressive weakness in the legs. Patients with these symptoms should seek immediate medical care.
  • Severe back pain (such as pain that is bad enough to interrupt sleep) that occurs with other signs of severe illness (e.g. fever, unexplained weight loss) may also indicate a serious underlying medical condition, such as cancer.
  • Back pain that occurs after a trauma, such as a car accident or fall, should also be promptly evaluated by a medical professional to check for a fracture or other injury.
  • Back pain in individuals with medical conditions that put them at high risk for a spinal fracture, such as osteoporosis or multiple myeloma, also warrants prompt medical attention.

In general, however, back pain does not usually require immediate medical intervention. The vast majority of episodes of back pain are self-limiting and non-progressive. Most back pain syndromes are due to inflammation, especially in the acute phase, which typically lasts for two weeks to three months.

Underlying causes

Transient back pain is likely one of the first symptoms of influenza.Muscle strains (pulled muscles) are commonly identified as the cause of back pain, as are muscle imbalances. Pain from such an injury often remains as long as the muscle imbalances persist. The muscle imbalances cause a mechanical problem with the skeleton, building up pressure at points along the spine, which causes the pain.Another cause of acute low back pain is a Meniscoid Occlusion. The more mobile regions of the spine have invaginations of the synovial membrane that act as a cushion to help the bones move over each other smoothly. The synovial membrane is well supplied with blood and nerves. When it becomes pinched or trapped it can cause sudden severe pain. The pinching causes the membrane to become inflamed, causing greater pressure and ongoing pain. Symptoms include severe low back pain that may be accompanied by muscle spasm, pain with walking, concentration of pain to one side, and no radiculopathy (radiating pain down buttock and leg). Relief should be felt with flexion (bending forward), exacerbated with extension (bending backward).When back pain lasts more than three months, or if there is more radicular pain (sciatica) than back pain, a more specific diagnosis can usually be made. There are several common causes of back pain: for adults under age 50, these include spinal disc herniation and degenerative disc disease or isthmic spondylolisthesis; in adults over age 50, common causes also include osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) and spinal stenosis[1],trauma, cancer, infection, fractures, and inflammatory disease Non-anatomical factors can also contribute to or cause back pain, such as stress, repressed anger, or depression. Even if there is an anatomical cause for the pain, if depression is present it should also be treated concurrently.Back pain is frequently experienced when no underlying anatomical problem is apparent. Some believe this pain to be caused by tension myositis syndrome.

Treatment

The management goals when treating back pain are to achieve maximal reduction in pain intensity as rapidly as possible; to restore the individual’s ability to function in everyday activities; to help the patient cope with residual pain; to assess for side-effects of therapy; and to facilitate the patient’s passage through the legal and socioeconomic impediments to recovery. For many, the goal is to keep the pain to a manageable level to progress with rehabilitation, which then can lead to long term pain relief. Also, for some people the goal is to use non-surgical therapies to manage the pain and avoid major surgery, while for others surgery may be the quickest way to feel better.Not all treatments work for all conditions or for all individuals with the same condition, and many find that they need to try several treatment options to determine what works best for them. The present stage of the condition (acute or chronic) is also a determining factor in the choice of treatment. Only a minority of back pain patients (most estimates are 1% – 10%) require surgery. 

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The history of Tango is fascinating and complex. The evolution of the dance has profound implications for the way we dance today, and Tango music has become one of the great World Music genres. For the first century of its history, while Tango music struggled for and then achieved respectability, the dance was neglected by historians and academics. The articles on these pages are based on many years of research in areas sometimes not covered by the official histories of Tango. The aim is to get to the heart of the Tango from a dancer’s perspective, but not forgetting the rich history of the music. We will examine the story of the dance, from its earliest stages, through its worldwide success before and after the First World War, the Golden Age from the mid 1930s until the coup in Argentina in 1955, the dark ages of Tango when the dance was pushed underground and persecuted, and the fabulous Tango renaissance which has spread the dance once again all over the world. An overview of the history of the music will examine its evolution and the influences that formed it, putting the great Tango artists in context.

Article publish on: http://www.history-of-tango.com/

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Egg- as super food.

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Eggs are packed with a range of nutrients including protein, essential vitamins A, D, E, and B group as well as minerals iron, phosphorus and zinc. They’re relatively low in saturated fat, making them a healthy fast food for all the family. They’re low in calories with only around 80 kcals per medium egg – so they are great if you’re on a diet!Eggs are one of the most nutritious foods money can buy. They contain a wealth of vitamins, minerals and protein. In particular, they are an excellent source of B vitamins that perform many vital functions in the body. Eggs also provide good quantities of vitamin A – essential for normal growth and development.Vitamin E gives protection against heart disease and some cancers. Vitamin D is also present to provide mineral absorption and good bone health.Eggs are rich in essential minerals, in particular iodine, required for making thyroid hormones and phosphorus, essential for healthy teeth and bones.Trace elements are also present in eggs, including iron to help with red blood cell formation and zinc, for improved immunity.Eggs are a great source of choline. Research shows that if you don’t have enough choline during pregnancy, the brain doesn’t develop normally and babies are born either with defective memory or lower memory capabilities that lasts throughout their lives. Giving choline in utero has been shown to lead to better than average memory for life.Just like fruit and vegetables, eggs contain powerful antioxidants such as selenium. As the name suggests, antioxidants work by protecting the body against the inevitable damage caused by the process by which the body metabolises oxygen. Antioxidants are important in protecting against diseases such as heart disease and some cancers.With so much nutritional goodness it’s no wonder they deserve the title superfood!Article from: http://www.britegg.co.uk/nutrition05/startnutrition.html

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Mehendi As A Tradition

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  • Many historical events say that Mehandi is the Art of Arabic Muslims who brought henna to India, where it has bloomed into its own exclusive art style. In Indian Mehandi, a person applies designs conventionally to a woman’s hands and feet. For particularly auspicious occasions, men also apply Mehandi. The most auspicious occasion justifying Mehandi artwork is the Indian wedding, where both bride and bridegroom apply henna, as well as several members of the bridal party. Henna on any time symbolizes fruitfulness. At the wedding, henna artwork further represents the love between married couple.
 
  • Mehandi came into use because of its cooling healing effect in a hot weather conditions and in India, it was also a way for a bride and groom to get to know one another before an agreed marriage. A variety of traditions underlie the use of Mehandi, including wedding games and legends. For example, the groom’s name is usually written somewhere within the bride’s Mehandi; if he cannot find his name within the complicated design, the bride is said to have the command in the marriage. Also, a dark Mehandi design for both bride and groom signifies that the two will have a strong relationship. Within the past few years, Mehandi has become popularized in the West by musicians and Hollywood personalities alike, and is now a quickly rising trend among women and men in world culture.

Occasions to wear Mehandi design

  • The Hindu marriages are special occasions for Henna tattoos. Although Mehandi is generally used in many Hindu festivals and celebrations, there’s no doubt that Hindu wedding has become synonymous with this beautiful reddish dye. Hindus often use the term ‘Mehandi’ interchangeably with marriage, and Mehandi is considered among the most auspicious jewelleries of a married woman.
  • Mehandi is not just a way of artistic expression; sometimes it’s a ‘must to wear factor’ in Indian weddings. A Hindu wedding includes a number of religious resources previously and during the marriages. Mehandi play a very important part in it, so much so that no Indian marriage is considered absolute without it
  • Mehandi is admired and accepted with both men and women also as a conditioner and dye for the hair. Mehandi is also applied during the various fasts observed by married women. It is believed widely that a large Mehandi dot in the middle of the hand, with four smaller ones at the sides denotes the presence of gods Ganesha and Lakshmi.
  • A bride’s wedding plan usually includes a hidden writing of the groom’s name on her palm. It’s believed, if the groom fails to find his name within the complicated outlines, the bride will be more leading in marital life. Sometimes the wedding night is not allowed to commence until the groom has found the names. Hence ‘name game’ is the other occasion for Mehandi to wear.

Dresses to match with Mehandi

With regional exceptions, if you wish to be a conventional Hindu bride, you wear a wedding gown, which is generally said as a “sari” in maroon color representing fertility, prosperity and wholesomeness. Guests and all visitors of the function should respect the customs and the women should wear long dresses and both genders should cover their arms to avoid causing any unintentional offence.

‘Haldi’, the turmeric paste is applied to the groom’s body before he bathes and he usually is supposed to wear a ‘tikka’ or a ’tilak’ on his forehead. Article publish on: http://beauty.indobase.com/mehendi/henna-occasions-dresses.html

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